In surgery, the knee is flexed and the leg suspended. One muscle is separated to expose the femur (thighbone); later, the tibia (shinbone) is exposed. The damaged surfaces at the end of the thighbone are trimmed to shape it to fit inside the total knee prosthesis. The shinbone is cut flat across the top and a hole is created in the center to hold the stem of the tibial component. If needed, the knee cap is trimmed and the patellar component attached.
At various points during surgery, the alignment, function, and stability of the knee joint are evaluated and required adjustments are made. The prosthesis components are cemented into place, any contracted ligaments are released, the midvastus muscle is reconstructed, and the incision is closed.